Golden Rules of Accounting Types & Examples

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An account is a summarized record of the transactions relating to one person or thing or one class of income and expense. Understanding the system of debits and credits may require a sophisticated employee. However, no company can afford such ruinous waste of cash for record keeping. It is generally done by clerical staff and people who work at the store.

  • Identifying and recording accounting transactions in a systematic way in the proper books of accounts is called bookkeeping.
  • Overall, the Golden Rules of Accounting are essential for maintaining accurate and reliable financial records, which is critical for effective financial management and decision-making.
  • The balances are therefore reset to zero and may now begin again.
  • Examples of nominal accounts are Commission Received, Salary Account, Rent Account and Interest Account.
  • Even if money is not involved then also it records it as it did.

In the Traditional Approach, the key concept is to classify various accounts under two broad categories, i.e., Personal and Impersonal Accounts which we will discuss further in detail. Whereas, Modern Approach uses the Accounting Equation to classify different transactions. So, you have to debit the asset’s account when a business purchase or create the assets and credit the asset’s account when a business sells or dispose of the assets.

Types of Accounts under Accounting System

Expense is what is incurred or spent in making the sales, and in running the business. Examples of expense are cost of goods sold, wages or salaries, rent expense, postage expense,  and stationery expense etc. A quick video tour will help you get a better understanding of the entire process in a few minutes. When the number of expected inflow number flows is unpredictable, the organization must identify the lowest possible revenue and the most significant potential expenses using this approach. And, lastly, company Y will no longer appear as a debtor on your balance sheet. After acquiring the furniture and using Company Y’s advertising services, you pay Company Y $250 ($20,000 – $19,750 – $500) in cash.

The golden rules of Accounting provide the basis to record all day-to-day financial business transactions in the Journal Day Book. These rules will provide a minimum of two accounts from a single business transaction one is debit and another is credit which is required to record the journal entry in the journal daybook. So you can say that these rules are the foundation of the Double-entry system.

Real accounts, personal accounts, and nominal accounts fall under this category. A general ledger account called a “real account” contains information on assets and liabilities. These accounts are carried forward and do not finish out the year.

  • Real, nominal and personal have been explained in earlier articles.
  • In the below example, we have listed different type of transactions along with the type of accounts and details of debit/credit after applying the accounting rules.
  • We have created a printer-friendly PDF version of the rules.

Debits increase an asset or expense account and decrease equity, liability, or revenue accounts. Real accounts are carried forward to the following year, therefore, are not closed at the end of the financial year. Since accounting principles differ around the world, investors should take caution when comparing the financial statements of companies from different countries. The issue of differing accounting principles is less of a concern in more mature markets. Still, caution should be used, as there is still leeway for number distortion under many sets of accounting principles.

Nominal Rule/Account

We follow the accounting standards accepted in the respective countries and of course the three golden rules of accounting as well to offer a most tailored services. Simply said, for real accounts, you should debit the account whenever something enters your company (such as an asset). On the other hand, you should credit the account when something departs your business (such as a decrease in an asset).

Advantages and disadvantages of Private Limited Company

In some cases, these rules are very difficult to understand how to apply, So that’s why Modern Rules of Accounting have come into existence. Accountants are of the belief that the market value of anything is just an opinion, and they cannot work on the basis of opinions because there are many of them and everyone’s opinions differ. The sold price of something can be taken as fact since someone has already paid for it at that figure. Hence accounting works on cost principle and therefore on facts only, not opinions. As you’d expect with a field that is determined by accounting procedures, there are some rules that every accounting professional must follow when performing their tasks and duties.

Benefits of golden rules of accounting

Examples of nominal accounts include expense, gain, loss, and revenue accounts. As per the rule, when the business incurs a loss or has an expense then you need to debit the account. If the business has a gain or earns an income then the account should have a credit.

Real Account:

In the event of a personal account rule, the other business or individual who contributes it becomes the giver. When it comes to nominal accounts, you should debit the rules for accounting inventory debit and credits the account whenever your company experiences an expense or loss. In contrast, you should credit the account if your company generates money or makes a profit.

The real account appears in the balance sheet and assesses the financial position of the business. If all earnings and profits are credited, the capital will increase. The three golden rules of accounting apply to different types of accounts and the rules are as follows. Each accounting entry is recorded chronologically in “the book of original entry” (journal or subsidiary books) according to the 3 golden rules of accounting.


The data is not only used to track the amount of a transaction but also its effect and direction as well. After the activity has been recorded the next step is to ‘post’ the entry i.e. transfer it to the appropriate ledger account. Source documents are used to support the entry of transactions in the books of account. For example; invoices, cheques, receipts, debit notes, credit notes, etc. After a stint in equity research, he switched to writing for B2B brands full-time. Arjun has since written for investment firms, consultants, and SaaS brands in the Accounting and Finance space.

According to double-entry bookkeeping, each business transaction impacts at least two accounts. Accounts are either debited or credited based on the transaction and account type, but the amount of debit is always equal to the amount of credit. Other examples of nominal accounts include rent, interest, and salary accounts. Luca Pacioli, the father of accounting, codified double-entry bookkeeping and the three golden rules in his mathematics textbook called Summa de arithmetica.


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